Discover the fastest rising contemporary artists.

Artcracy is a big data index that analyzes the online presence of plastic artists.

TOP
5000 ARTISTS
BY INSTAGRAM

1

Roger Vivier

PTS 16.42

Artcracy Rank

4043 +62

Roger Vivier(1907–1998) was a French fashion designer who specialized in shoes.

2

Christian Louboutin

PTS 15.43

Artcracy Rank

6002 +1618

Christian Louboutin(French: [kʁis.tjɑ̃ lu.bu.tɛ̃]; born 7 January 1963) is a French footwear designer whose footwear has incorporated shiny, red-lacquered soles that have become his signature.

3

John Lennon

PTS 13.89

Artcracy Rank

2746 +8

John Winston Ono LennonMBE(bornJohn Winston Lennon; 9 October 1940 – 8 December 1980) was an English singer and songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as a co-founder of the band the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.

4

Andy Warhol

PTS 13.55

Artcracy Rank

1 0


Andy Warhol (American, 1928–1987), born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh, PA, was an iconic and versatile Pop artist. After studying design at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Warhol moved to New York City in 1949 to pursue a career as a commercial artist. Though successful, Warhol wanted to be an independent painter, and in the early 1960s began to create paintings based on advertisement imagery. Shocking in its embrace of "low art" and its detachment from emotion, his early work quickly brought him fame, as he produced the now infamous series of Campbell’s Soup Cans, Disasters, Electric Chairs, and celebrity portraits (Marilyn Monroe, Jackie Kennedy, and Elvis Presley were among his subjects), with commercial techniques such as screen printing and stenciling. As his fame grew, Warhol built a studio called The Factory on 47th street in New York City, and collected a group of eccentrics he called the "Superstars", with whom he created a number of experimental films, such as Sleep, Chelsea Girls, and Empire, which were often banned by the police for their vulgarity.

In 1968, Valerie Solanas, a former member of Warhol’s entourage, attempted to kill the artist and others outside of The Factory. Narrowly surviving, Warhol withdrew from his bohemian circle and occupied himself in the 1970s creating celebrity portraits, which brought him considerable earnings, but weakened his critical approval. With

Warhol died in 1987 due to complications following an operation. As per his desire, the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was established after his death.

5

Van Cleef & Arpels

PTS 13.45

Artcracy Rank

9431 +49

Van Cleef & Arpels (French, est. 1906) is a luxury French jewelry, watch, and perfume company. It was founded by Salomon Arpels and his son-in-law Alfred Van Cleef. After Salomon’s death, Alfred and his two brothers-in-law, Charles and Julien, opened their first shop in the prestigious Place Vendôme in 1906, and were soon joined by a third brother, Louis. The company quickly gained a reputation for its use of precious stones and innovative stone-setting techniques.

Van Cleef & Arpels expanded to multiple boutiques between 1909 and 1939. In 1933, the house patented the Mystery Set technique, in which the prongs securing the stone in place are invisible. The technique requires more than 300 hours of work per piece, and only a few are produced every year. In 1942, the Arpels family immigrated to the United States and opened their first American boutique in New York. The company eventually expanded into Asia, and remained under the operation and management of the family until 1999, when it was bought by Compagnie Financière Richemont S.A.

> The company was featured in a 1992 exhibition in Paris at the Musée de la mode et du Costume. Today, the brand lends its jewelry to some of the most important celebrities and fashion designers in the world, including Gareth Pugh, <a href="artists/karl-lagerfeld/">Karl Lagerfeld, and Gaspard Yurkievich.

6

Ringo Starr

PTS 13.34

Artcracy Rank

4032 +62

Richard Starkey,MBE(born 7 July 1940), known professionally asRingo Starr, is an English musician and actor who gained worldwide fame as the drummer for the Beatles. He occasionally sang lead vocals, usually for one song on an album, including "With a Little Help from My Friends", "Yellow Submarine" and their cover of "Act Naturally".

7

Ai Weiwei

PTS 13.31

Artcracy Rank

6 0

Ai Weiwei (Chinese, b.1957) is a Conceptual artist, sculptor, and curator, originally from Beijing, China. In 1978, he enrolled in the Beijing Film Academy. He later became a member of the artist group Stars, which refused to create Chinese Art that followed government guidelines. The first unofficial exhibition of this group, which took place by a fence of the Beijing National Gallery, attracted international attention.

From 1981 to 1993, Ai lived in the United States, primarily in New York. At that time, he focused on Performance and Conceptual Art, and graduated from the Parsons School of Design. Influenced by the artworks of

In the spring of 2011, he was arrested on suspicion of tax evasion. This incident caused a wave of international protest, and many important individuals called for his release. On June 22, 2011, the artist was granted bail with strict conditions. That same year, Ai was listed as one of the top 100 of most influential people in the world by Time Magazine. He participated in the 48th Venice Biennale in 1999, and in documenta XII in 2007. Ai lives and works in the Art District of Dashanz in Beijing.

8

Tim Burton

PTS 13.30

Artcracy Rank

1918 +2

Timothy Walter"Tim"Burton(/ˈbɜrtən/; born August 25, 1958) is an American film director, producer, artist, writer, and animator. He is known for his dark, gothic, macabre, and quirky horror and fantasy films such as the horror comedy fantasyBeetlejuice(1988), the romantic dark fantasyEdward Scissorhands(1990), the musical fantasy-thrillerThe Nightmare Before Christmas(1993), the comedy-drama biopicEd Wood(1994), the fantasy adventureSleepy Hollow(1999), the animated fantasyCorpse Bride(2005), the musical horror filmSweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street(2007), the horror comedyDark Shadows(2012) and the animated horror comedyFrankenweenie(2012).

9

Banksy

PTS 13.27

Artcracy Rank

2 0


Banksy (British, b. ca.1974/1975) is one of the most well-known, if mysterious, Graffiti artists working in England today. Banksy, the pseudonym adopted by the artist, heavily guards his privacy; the details of his life largely unknown to the public. He has garnered great fame for his graffiti works, which often combine spray paint and stenciling techniques with commercial, political, and contemporary imagery, infused with ironic social commentary and humor. Often critical of business and corporations, Banksy’s work has been found on the sides of corporate buildings, on billboards, as well as the Israeli West Bank wall.

The unveiling of many of Banksy’s new works often incorporates pranks or performance: he secretly added his own works in museums like the Tate Modern in London or the Paris Louvre; opened gallery shows to the public with specially-bred rats running around the gallery space; and once inserted an inflatable doll dressed as a Guantanamo Bay prisoner into the Disneyland theme park in California. In addition to his reactionary street art, Banksy has created works for several charities, and consistently opens exhibitions of his work to wide audiences and critical acclaim. He currently lives and works in Bristol, England.

10

Michael Jackson

PTS 13.20

Artcracy Rank

5802 +1618

Michael Joseph Jackson(August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor.

11

Frida Kahlo

PTS 13.10

Artcracy Rank

812 +44

Frida Kahlo (Mexican, 1907–1954) is one of Mexico’s most celebrated and well-known artists, renowned for her surrealistic paintings and self-portraits. Born in Coyoacán, at the age of six, Kahlo contracted polio, leaving one leg shorter than the other, which she covered with long skirts. Kahlo attended the renowned National Preparatory School in Mexico City, where she first met the famous Mexican muralist

Kahlo reconnected with Rivera in 1928. The two soon began a romantic relationship, and were eventually married. During their earlier years together, the two moved many times for Rivera’s work, spending time in San Francisco, New York, and Detroit. During this time, Kahlo often occupied herself by painting, particularly because the chronic pain she experienced frequently left her immobilized.

In 1938, Kahlo befriended noted Surrealist artist

In 1944, Kahlo painted one of her most famous portraits, The Broken Column. In this work, she is naked from the waist up and split down the middle, with a surgical brace wrapped around her chest and torso. Her spine appears as a shattered column and everywhere on her body, the artist painted nails. This work exemplifies her unique and expressive use of color and symbolism, as well as her use of Surrealist techniques coupled with elements of traditional Mexican painting.

Her health worsened in the 1950s, though she continued to paint and show her works. She died in her home in Mexico City at the age of 47.

Her popularity grew after her death, with her famous Blue House converted into a museum in 1958. She also served as an icon during the feminist movement in the 1970s. In 2002, her life was the subject of the movie Frida, which starred Salma Hayek and Alfred Molina, and was nominated for six Academy Awards.

12

Michael Jackson

PTS 13.09

Artcracy Rank

8863 -2865

Michael Joseph Jackson(August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor.

13

Salvador Dalí

PTS 12.94

Artcracy Rank

4 0

Salvador Dalí (Spanish, born May 11, 1904–died January 23, 1989) was a prominent Surrealist artist. Dalí spent his childhood in the Spanish villages of Figueras and Cadaques. He was influenced by Renaissance masters such as

In 1925, the artist held his first solo exhibition in Barcelona. Dalí would gain some international recognition in 1928 when the Carnegie International Exhibition showed three of his works, one of which was Basket of Bread. He met

World War II forced Dalí and his wife to flee Europe. The couple spent most of the 1940s in the United States. New York’s Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective exhibition of Dalí’s work in 1941. He wrote his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, the following year. Dalí deviated from Surrealism in the 1950s and began painting a more classical series of 19 paintings. These works incorporated topics such as history, religion, and science. Washington, D.C.’s National Gallery holds The Sacrament of the Last Supper, while the Salvador Dalí Museum is home to The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Dalí not only painted, but also collaborated with other artists in sculpture, photography, and film. Walt Disney collaborated with him on the film Destino, and Alfred Hitchcock commissioned the artist to design a dream sequence for his film Spellbound. Dalí spent the last years of his life in Torre Galatea, Spain. The artist died on January 23, 1989.

14

Chris Martin

PTS 12.71

Artcracy Rank

1230 0

Drawing on inspiration from Buddhism to Amy Winehouse, Chris Martin “lets the paintings make themselves” and creates bold abstract works that explore the unknowable psychological tendencies of art. His canvases are characterized by flat-yet-textured planes of saturated color, and will often incorporate found materials and highly personal paper ephemera. Works such as [_Untitled_](/artwork/chris-martin-untitled) (2013) demonstrate the influence of [Pablo Picasso](/artist/pablo-picasso)'s collages, and his canvases' strong geometries also elaborate a self-proclaimed attachment to [Piet Mondrian](/artist/piet-mondrian). Martin's practice came of age in 1980s New York, which saw the explosion of the [East Village](/gene/east-village-art) art scene, led by [Keith Haring](/artist/keith-haring), as well as the tragedy of the AIDS crisis.

15

Karl Lagerfeld

PTS 12.59

Artcracy Rank

533 0

Karl Lagerfeld (German, b.1933) is a well-known fashion designer, and the head of fashion houses Chanel and Fendi, as well as the founder of his own label. Born in Hamburg, Germany, early on, Lagerfeld showed an interest in design and fashion. At the age of 14, he moved to Paris, winning first prize in a design competition. Lagerfeld was soon offered a job with French designer

In 1983, Lagerfeld became the creative director and head designer for Chanel, where he shook up the fashion world by creating his own ready-to-wear line called Karl Lagerfeld, along with a lower-priced sporty line, KL. In 1987, he received France’s Golden Thimble award for his Chanel haute couture collection. In 1992, Lagerfeld returned to Chloe, where his first collection was an enormous critical success. During this time, Lagerfeld launched his own label, which developed a reputation for high quality fit at affordable prices.

In 1997, Lagerfeld stepped down from his position as chief designer at Chloe in order to concentrate more on his own signature line. In 2005, Lagerfeld sold his label to Tommy Hilfiger.

In addition to his work in fashion, he has created costumes for La Scala in Milan, and for films such as The Sun Also Rises, Babette’s Feast, Viva le Vie, and Le General de L’Armee Morte. He has also worked in the field of decorative art, restoring a number of old mansions, including the Chateau de Penhoët in Brittany. He is also an accomplished photographer, shooting fashion advertisements for both Chanel and for his House of Lagerfeld.

He currently lives and works in Paris.

16

Roberto Cavalli

PTS 12.52

Artcracy Rank

4292 -103

Roberto Cavalli(Italian pronunciation: [roˈbɛrto kaˈvalːi]) (born 15 November 1940) is an Italian fashion designer from Florence. He is known for exotic prints and for creating the sand-blasted look for jeans. He is the father of fashion designer Daniele Cavalli (b.

17

Jeff Koons

PTS 12.47

Artcracy Rank

13 0


Neo-Pop artist Jeff Koons (American, b.1955) inspires conflicted reactions to his over-sized sculptures of banal and sometimes shocking objects; some consider his work to be historically significant, while others view him as an attention-seeker who panders to the high-end art world. Educated at the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Maryland, he was initially supported by his career on Wall Street. By the early 1980s, Koons was able to establish a studio staffed by assistants.

He quickly cultivated a media persona by hiring image consultants and placing strategic advertisements in high-class art publications; his scandalous marriage to and subsequent divorce from the Hungarian-Italian porn star Ciccolina also brought much public attention. Most famous for enlarged objects such as Puppy and his huge sculptures of inflated balloons, Koons also works in series of paintings, prints, and collage, stating that he is attempting to make a body of work that anybody could enjoy.

18

Keith Haring

PTS 12.43

Artcracy Rank

851 +44


Keith Haring (American, 1958–1990), Neo-Pop and Graffiti artist, had a short but prolific career centered on a vision to unite “high art,” urban aesthetics, and public spaces, in humorous, irreverent, and poignant works. Born in Pennsylvania, Haring attended the Ivy School of Art in Pittsburgh for two years, planning to become a commercial artist. He found this path unsatisfying, and instead chose to study at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, where he met fellow artists

Haring’s bold public art attracted the attention of top galleries, and, by the early 1980s, he was painting Neo-Pop works and large murals for children. In an effort to make his art widely accessible, Haring opened the Pop Shop in 1986 in downtown New York, selling commercial items adorned with his art. Haring combined cartoon imagery with graffiti, hip-hop, and urban aesthetics, frequently depicting animals, figures, commercial icons, sexual imagery, and childlike motifs in pieces both playful and apprehensive.

His work became increasingly anxious and angry following his 1987 diagnosis with AIDS. Haring resolved to work harder than ever in his remaining years, creating pieces with a fervent speed, and devoting his art to social action in addition to personal expression. In 1989, he established the Keith Haring Foundation, meant to promote art programs and public spaces for children, and to raise awareness about AIDS. He died in February 1990. In addition to hundreds of exhibitions held during his lifetime, Haring has had numerous retrospectives in New York, San Francisco, Paris, Tokyo, and Berlin since his death.

19

Takashi Murakami

PTS 12.39

Artcracy Rank

15 0

Takashi Murakami (American/Japanese, b.1962) is a painter and sculptor famous for his integration of Fine Art, commercialism, Japanese aesthetics, and cultural criticism into his work. Murakami received his BFA, MFA, and PhD from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, where he studied Nihonga (traditional Japanese painting). He first gained recognition as a sculptor during the early 1990s, exploring otaku (the Japanese term for an obsession with anime and cartoons) and the contradictions between contemporary Japanese society and American culture in his work.

In 1996, he created the Hiropon Factory in Japan, which later developed into Kaikai Kiki Co., Ltd., a large art-making and artist management corporation. Murakami is also a curator and a critical observer of Japanese art. In 2000, he founded the "superflat" movement, a post-modern style drawing inspiration from Japanese manga (comics created in Japan), graphic design, and traditional Japanese prints and screen paintings. Throughout his career, Murakami has increasingly blurred the boundaries between fine art and popular culture by branding his artwork and turning it into merchandise, particularly with the celebrated character

20

KAWS

PTS 12.35

Artcracy Rank

93 0

KAWS (American, b.1974) is a notable limited-edition toy and clothing designer. He was born in Jersey City, NJ, as Brian Donnelly. Growing up in New Jersey, KAWS first became interested in graffiti in elementary school, where he spent a good deal of time copying graffiti images onto paper. His first influences were neighborhood children, who painted graffiti images on walls within his community. As he grew older, his influences came from traditional life painters, such as

KAWS’s career began as a graffiti artist in New York, NY, in the early 1990s. His images were seen on billboards, bus stops, and in phone booths. He obtained his BFA from the School of Visual Arts in New York. Immediately after graduation in 1996, KAWS began working as a freelance artist for Disney, creating animated backgrounds. Some of his most popular works include his contributions to 101 Dalmations, Daria, and Doug. Once KAWS began to gain popularity, his graffiti advertisements became highly sought after. He traveled extensively to work in Paris, London, Germany, and Japan. In 1998, he received the Pernod Liquid Art Award, which offers a grant to new artists.

In late 1990s, KAWS began to design and produce limited-edition toys. These gained international popularity, especially in Japan. He also began to collaborate on several different toys, including with Nigo (Japanese, b.1970) for A Bathing Ape. Some of KAWS’s other popular collaborative works include his redesign of Mickey Mouse,

21

Alexander McQueen

PTS 12.30

Artcracy Rank

1662 +1

Lee Alexander McQueen, CBE (17 March 1969 – 11 February 2010) was a British fashion designer and couturier. He is known for having worked as chief designer at Givenchy from 1996 to 2001 and for founding his own Alexander McQueen label.

22

Raf Simons

PTS 12.23

Artcracy Rank

3784 +20

Raf Simons(Dutch pronunciation:[rɑf ˈsimɔns]; born 12 January 1968) is a Belgian fashion designer.

23

Yayoi Kusama

PTS 12.20

Artcracy Rank

1109 0

Avant-garde Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama was an influential figure in the postwar New York art scene, staging provocative happenings and exhibiting works such as her “Infinity Nets”, hallucinatory paintings of loops and dots (and physical representations of the idea of infinity).Narcissus Garden, an installation of hundreds of mirrored balls, earned Kusama notoriety at the 1966 Venice Biennale, where she attempted to sell the individual spheres to passersby. Kusama countedDonald JuddandEva Hesseamong her close friends, and is often considered an influence onAndy Warholand a precursor toPop art. Since her return to Japan in the 1970s, Kusama's work has continued to appeal to the imagination and the senses, including dizzying walk-in installations, public sculptures, and the "Dots Obsessions" paintings.

24

Pablo Picasso

PTS 12.17

Artcracy Rank

11 0


Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973), one of the most prominent, innovative artists of the 20th century, is celebrated for his lengthy and prolific career working in several modernist idioms, as well as for co-founding Cubism. Picasso was born in Málaga, Spain, and began drawing and painting early on under the influence of his father, an academic painter. He later studied art in Barcelona and often frequented the café Els Quatre Gats, where he first began exhibiting his own paintings. Picasso first visited Paris in 1900 for the city’s world fair, before moving there in 1904.

Early on, Picasso painted many scenes of laborers and the poor during his Blue Period, later focusing on acrobats and circus performers during his Rose Period; in each period, his compositions were dominated by blue or rose hues. In 1907, inspired by African aesthetics, Picasso made his first significant foray into Cubism and into a modernist aesthetic with his monumental painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which featured a scene of five aggressive-looking prostitutes painted with distorted, angular forms and faces in bold outlines, influenced by African masks.

Alongside fellow artist

In the mid-1940s, Picasso fully settled in Paris, later moving to Mougins, France, where he created an astounding number of paintings, prints, sculptures, ceramics, and works on paper during the next few decades. Held in the highest regard during his lifetime, retrospectives of his work have been held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Musée Picasso in Paris, the Emirates Palace in Abu Dhabi, the National Gallery in London, and the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid, among many other institutions. In 1973, Picasso died in Mougins, at 92 years old, and is renowned today as one of the pioneering and most influential forces of 20th-century modernism.

25

David Bowie

PTS 12.13

Artcracy Rank

1600 0

David Bowie(/ˈboʊ.i/; bornDavid Robert Jones, 8 January 1947) is an English singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, arranger, painter, and actor. Bowie has been an influential figure in popular music for over four decades, and is renowned as an innovator, particularly for his work in the 1970s. He is known for his distinctive baritone voice as well as the eclecticism and intellectual ambition of his work.

TOP
5000 ARTISTS
BY TWITTER

1

John McNamara

PTS 13.42

Artcracy Rank

2517 +8

John McNamara’s paintings pays homage to the history of American culture, questioning its values and tropes, and often incorporating appropriated photographic imagery of celebrities, artists, and landscapes. In works such as _Grid_ (2010), he shows the forceful power of electrification and modernization, suggesting its relationship to the modernist grid as an aesthetic device. McNamara builds images with expressive brushwork and a delicate touch, frequently painting over photographs in order to address issues of representation and explore the relationship between painting and photography. “I have always loved the tiny mark,” he says, though the scale of his overall vision and ideas is much bigger. He liberally mixes naturalistic, symbolic, and abstract imagery, confounding simple classification.

2

Banksy

PTS 13.41

Artcracy Rank

2 0


Banksy (British, b. ca.1974/1975) is one of the most well-known, if mysterious, Graffiti artists working in England today. Banksy, the pseudonym adopted by the artist, heavily guards his privacy; the details of his life largely unknown to the public. He has garnered great fame for his graffiti works, which often combine spray paint and stenciling techniques with commercial, political, and contemporary imagery, infused with ironic social commentary and humor. Often critical of business and corporations, Banksy’s work has been found on the sides of corporate buildings, on billboards, as well as the Israeli West Bank wall.

The unveiling of many of Banksy’s new works often incorporates pranks or performance: he secretly added his own works in museums like the Tate Modern in London or the Paris Louvre; opened gallery shows to the public with specially-bred rats running around the gallery space; and once inserted an inflatable doll dressed as a Guantanamo Bay prisoner into the Disneyland theme park in California. In addition to his reactionary street art, Banksy has created works for several charities, and consistently opens exhibitions of his work to wide audiences and critical acclaim. He currently lives and works in Bristol, England.

3

Michael Jackson

PTS 12.00

Artcracy Rank

5802 +1618

Michael Joseph Jackson(August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor.

4

Anish Kapoor

PTS 12.00

Artcracy Rank

21 0

Anish Kapoor (British/Indian, b.1954) is regarded as one of the most prominent British-Indian sculptors of his generation. He first gained critical recognition for his work in the 1980s; Kapoor is well known for his intense, almost spiritual, outdoor and indoor site-specific works in which he marries a Modernist sense of pure materiality with a fascination for the manipulation of form and the perception of space. Kapoor, who was born in Bombay and moved to London in the 1970s to study art, first worked on abstract and organic sculptures using fundamental natural materials such as granite, limestone, marble, pigment, and plaster. His sculptures extend formal minimalistic precepts through catching the viewer’s attention with rich colors, sensuously refined surfaces, and optical effects of depth and dimension.

Since the mid-1990s, Kapoor has explored the notion of the void by creating works that seem to recede into the distance, disappear into walls or floors, or otherwise destabilize assumptions about the physical world. Through transforming properties of objects and materials, Kapoor’s recent work increasingly blurs the boundaries between architecture, design, and art. He received great critical attention in the United States for Cloud Gate, a permanent 110-ton sculpture of polished stainless steel created for Chicago’s Millennium Park in 2006, and for Sky Mirror, a 35-foot-diameter concave mirror shown in the same year at Rockefeller Center in New York.

Kapoor has reached international status, with solo exhibitions at venues around the world, such as the Tate and Hayward Gallery in London, Kunsthalle Basel, the Haus der Kunst in Munich, and the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston. In 2015, a major exhibition of his work was presented in the gardens of the Palace of Versailles. He represented Britain at the Venice Biennale in 1990, and received the Turner Prize in the following year. Kapoor’s work can be found in collections worldwide, notably in The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Modern in London, the Prada Art Foundation in Milan, and the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.

He is represented by various galleries including

5

Erté

PTS 11.72

Artcracy Rank

991 +44

Erté (French, 1892–1990) is a designer and sculptor born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on November 23, 1892. Erté is a pseudonym for Romain de Tirtoff, and is the French pronunciation of the artist’s initials, R.T. He came from a distinguished Russian family, and his father served as an admiral in the Russian fleet. The artist moved to Paris, France, in 1912, and changed his name from Romain to Erté to avoid embarrassing his family, who wished that he would follow in his father's footsteps.

Erté worked for fashion designer Paul Poiret (French, 1879–1944) from 1913 to 1914. In 1915, he landed a contract with Harper's Bazaar, illustrating and designing covers. Throughout his lifetime, the artist designed over 240 covers for that magazine. He was most famous for his fashion designs and was often called "The Father of Art Deco." He was also a costume and set designer, and some of the most notable silent films he worked on included Paris, Ben Hur, and Dance Madness. His most famous image is Symphony in Black, a serigraph of a woman wearing black holding a black dog. Other works include Lust and Pink Lady. During the 1940s and the 1950s, the artist fell into relative obscurity.

Then, in the 1960s, there was an increased interest in Erté’s work, and, in response, he created a series of sculptures and lithographs that revived the Art Deco movement. In 1970, the French government awarded him the title of Chevalier du Mérite, Artistique et Culturel. In 1976, he was awarded the title of Officer of Arts and Letters by the French government. In 1982, he received the Medaille de Vermeil de la Ville de Paris. His exhibitions include those held at the Knoedler Gallery in New York, NY, in 1920, the Galleria Milano in Milan, Italy, in 1965, and the Shiseido Gallery in Tokyo, Japan, in 1976. His work is included in the collections at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and Museum 1999 in Tokyo, Japan. Erté died on April 21, 1990, in Paris, France, at the age of 97.

6

Pablo Picasso

PTS 11.72

Artcracy Rank

11 0


Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973), one of the most prominent, innovative artists of the 20th century, is celebrated for his lengthy and prolific career working in several modernist idioms, as well as for co-founding Cubism. Picasso was born in Málaga, Spain, and began drawing and painting early on under the influence of his father, an academic painter. He later studied art in Barcelona and often frequented the café Els Quatre Gats, where he first began exhibiting his own paintings. Picasso first visited Paris in 1900 for the city’s world fair, before moving there in 1904.

Early on, Picasso painted many scenes of laborers and the poor during his Blue Period, later focusing on acrobats and circus performers during his Rose Period; in each period, his compositions were dominated by blue or rose hues. In 1907, inspired by African aesthetics, Picasso made his first significant foray into Cubism and into a modernist aesthetic with his monumental painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which featured a scene of five aggressive-looking prostitutes painted with distorted, angular forms and faces in bold outlines, influenced by African masks.

Alongside fellow artist

In the mid-1940s, Picasso fully settled in Paris, later moving to Mougins, France, where he created an astounding number of paintings, prints, sculptures, ceramics, and works on paper during the next few decades. Held in the highest regard during his lifetime, retrospectives of his work have been held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Musée Picasso in Paris, the Emirates Palace in Abu Dhabi, the National Gallery in London, and the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid, among many other institutions. In 1973, Picasso died in Mougins, at 92 years old, and is renowned today as one of the pioneering and most influential forces of 20th-century modernism.

7

Ai Weiwei

PTS 11.68

Artcracy Rank

6 0

Ai Weiwei (Chinese, b.1957) is a Conceptual artist, sculptor, and curator, originally from Beijing, China. In 1978, he enrolled in the Beijing Film Academy. He later became a member of the artist group Stars, which refused to create Chinese Art that followed government guidelines. The first unofficial exhibition of this group, which took place by a fence of the Beijing National Gallery, attracted international attention.

From 1981 to 1993, Ai lived in the United States, primarily in New York. At that time, he focused on Performance and Conceptual Art, and graduated from the Parsons School of Design. Influenced by the artworks of

In the spring of 2011, he was arrested on suspicion of tax evasion. This incident caused a wave of international protest, and many important individuals called for his release. On June 22, 2011, the artist was granted bail with strict conditions. That same year, Ai was listed as one of the top 100 of most influential people in the world by Time Magazine. He participated in the 48th Venice Biennale in 1999, and in documenta XII in 2007. Ai lives and works in the Art District of Dashanz in Beijing.

8

Andy Warhol

PTS 11.67

Artcracy Rank

1 0


Andy Warhol (American, 1928–1987), born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh, PA, was an iconic and versatile Pop artist. After studying design at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Warhol moved to New York City in 1949 to pursue a career as a commercial artist. Though successful, Warhol wanted to be an independent painter, and in the early 1960s began to create paintings based on advertisement imagery. Shocking in its embrace of "low art" and its detachment from emotion, his early work quickly brought him fame, as he produced the now infamous series of Campbell’s Soup Cans, Disasters, Electric Chairs, and celebrity portraits (Marilyn Monroe, Jackie Kennedy, and Elvis Presley were among his subjects), with commercial techniques such as screen printing and stenciling. As his fame grew, Warhol built a studio called The Factory on 47th street in New York City, and collected a group of eccentrics he called the "Superstars", with whom he created a number of experimental films, such as Sleep, Chelsea Girls, and Empire, which were often banned by the police for their vulgarity.

In 1968, Valerie Solanas, a former member of Warhol’s entourage, attempted to kill the artist and others outside of The Factory. Narrowly surviving, Warhol withdrew from his bohemian circle and occupied himself in the 1970s creating celebrity portraits, which brought him considerable earnings, but weakened his critical approval. With

Warhol died in 1987 due to complications following an operation. As per his desire, the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was established after his death.

9

Edward Hopper

PTS 11.61

Artcracy Rank

1065 -327

Edward Hopper (American, 1882–1967) was an extremely influential artist who was best known for his Realist oil paintings and watercolors of urban and rural scenes. Hopper was born in Nyack, NY, and began his formal education in art in 1899 through a series of correspondence courses. After his father urged him to obtain more formal education, he transferred to the New York Institute of Art and Design in 1900. There he studied under

Hopper sold his first painting, Sailing (1911), in 1913 at the age of 31. His hope that this would be the beginning of a full-time career as an independent artist did not materialize for several more years, during which time, he continued to do illustration work in several different industries. In 1923, he met his future wife and fellow painter Josephine Nivison in Gloucester, MA. Nivison retired from her own career as a painter to assist Hopper in promoting his career. This led to six of his watercolor paintings being included in an exhibit at the Brooklyn Museum. One of them, The Mansard Roof (1923), was sold to the museum’s permanent collection. The following commercial exposure and the positive critical review resulted in the sale of all of his watercolors the next year. This allowed him to finally retire from illustration work and concentrate solely on painting.

Prior to his death in 1967, Hopper produced thousands of works, including his most famous painting, Nighthawks (1942), which was a prime example of his Realist style of painting scenes based on everyday life. Other notable pieces by Hopper include Early Sunday Morning (1930), Girl at Sewing Machine (1921), and Chop Suey (1929).

Today, his works can be found in major institutions around the world, including the Art Institute of Chicago, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, and the Tate Gallery in London, among others.

10

Salvador Dalí

PTS 11.54

Artcracy Rank

4 0

Salvador Dalí (Spanish, born May 11, 1904–died January 23, 1989) was a prominent Surrealist artist. Dalí spent his childhood in the Spanish villages of Figueras and Cadaques. He was influenced by Renaissance masters such as

In 1925, the artist held his first solo exhibition in Barcelona. Dalí would gain some international recognition in 1928 when the Carnegie International Exhibition showed three of his works, one of which was Basket of Bread. He met

World War II forced Dalí and his wife to flee Europe. The couple spent most of the 1940s in the United States. New York’s Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective exhibition of Dalí’s work in 1941. He wrote his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, the following year. Dalí deviated from Surrealism in the 1950s and began painting a more classical series of 19 paintings. These works incorporated topics such as history, religion, and science. Washington, D.C.’s National Gallery holds The Sacrament of the Last Supper, while the Salvador Dalí Museum is home to The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Dalí not only painted, but also collaborated with other artists in sculpture, photography, and film. Walt Disney collaborated with him on the film Destino, and Alfred Hitchcock commissioned the artist to design a dream sequence for his film Spellbound. Dalí spent the last years of his life in Torre Galatea, Spain. The artist died on January 23, 1989.

11

René Magritte

PTS 11.49

Artcracy Rank

12 0

René Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967) was a painter, photographer, and sculptor who was a major player in the Surrealist movement in Belgium during the 1920s. His primary role was as a painter, and he frequently delved into mystical concepts and the disconnection between His first Surreal painting was created during this period, and it was called Magritte was famous for altering the forms of

12

John Lennon

PTS 11.47

Artcracy Rank

2746 +8

John Winston Ono LennonMBE(bornJohn Winston Lennon; 9 October 1940 – 8 December 1980) was an English singer and songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as a co-founder of the band the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.

13

Jeremy Mann

PTS 11.33

Artcracy Rank

9049 0

Jeremy Mann (American, b.1979) is a painter best known for his moody, dark cityscapes. Mann graduated from Ohio University with a degree in Fine Art painting, and later attended the Academy of Art University in San Francisco.

Working on wood panels, Mann employs various techniques when creating his pieces, including staining the surface, wiping away paint with solvents, and applying broad marks with an ink brayer. Mann uses vivid, atmospheric colors, and is often inspired by the city of San Francisco, where he currently lives and works. In addition to his urban scenes, he also paints still lifes, and portraits of young women in his characteristically impressionistic manner. He has exhibited at venues around San Francisco and throughout the United States, at galleries such as John Pence Gallery, the Studio Gallery, Christopher Hill Gallery, and Principle Gallery, among others.

14

Li Na

PTS 11.32

Artcracy Rank

7282 +1618

Li Na(born 26 February 1982) is a Chinese former professional tennis player, who achieved a career-high ranking of world No. 2 on the WTA Tour on 17 February 2014, but retired from the sport seven months later due to a chronic left knee injury that had kept her out of the game for many years previously. Over the course of her career, Li won nine WTA singles titles, including two Grand Slam singles titles at the 2011 French Open and 2014 Australian Open. Li's rise to prominence came after those victories, which made her the first and only Grand Slam singles champion from Asia. Prior to this, she had already become the first player representing an Asian country to appear in a Grand Slam singles final, a milestone she achieved at the 2011 Australian Open. Li was also the runner-up at the 2013 Australian Open and 2013 WTA Tour Championships, a three-time quarterfinalist at Wimbledon and a semifinalist at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and 2013 US Open.

15

Yoko Ono

PTS 11.32

Artcracy Rank

1101 -327

Yoko Ono (Japanese, b.1933) is a musician, composer, and multimedia artist, most active in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. After Ono''s family moved from Tokyo to Scarsdale, NY in the early 1950s, she enrolled at Sarah Lawrence College. In 1955, she eloped with the composer Toshi Ichiyanagi and moved to Manhattan, where she joined circles and communities of avant-garde artists.

In the 1960s, Ono became one of the original members of the artist group Fluxus. She hosted performance pieces for fellow artists at her downtown apartment, and had solo performances and exhibitions of her own work at the Carnegie Recital Hall and the AG Gallery. In 1962, Ono returned to Tokyo, where she presented solo shows and concerts at the Sogetsu Art Center. She married American art promoter Tony Cox in 1963.

In 1964, Ono debuted Cut Piece, a performance in which she invited audience members to join her onstage and to cut off her clothing piece by piece. The performance is considered an early example of the burgeoning Feminist Art movement, and often described as one of Ono's most significant works. Many of Ono's most notable works are Conceptual and require the participation of viewers or audience members.

In 1966, Ono moved to London, where she met John Lennon at an exhibition of her work at the Indica Gallery. Their meeting marked the start of what would become a famous relationship, one that was both personal and professional due to their many artistic collaborations. Ono and Lennon were perhaps best known for their performance pieces, such as Bed-Ins (1969). When they invited the press into their honeymoon suite in March of 1969, they used the opportunity to discuss world peace while wearing their pajamas. The couple continued to work together on a variety of artistic projects until Lennon's death in 1980. Ono continues to exhibit her work today; her art has been displayed in many institutions, including the Everson Museum in Syracuse, NY, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Japan Society in New York.

16

Calvo

PTS 11.27

Artcracy Rank

6450 +1618

Calvois a Spanish or Italian surname, meaning bald, which was first used during the Middle Ages.

17

Frank Stella

PTS 11.04

Artcracy Rank

38 0

Frank Stella (American, b.1936) is a painter and printmaker who was born in Malden, MA. He attended high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, MA, and went on to study history at Princeton University. After he graduated in 1958, the artist moved to New York, NY.

In 1958, Stella was inspired by

Stella’s works have been featured in various exhibitions in the United States and worldwide, including those held at Haunch of Venison in London, England; the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, NY; Gagosian Gallery in New York, NY; The Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C.; and Kunstmuseum in Basel, Switzerland. In 1970, when Stella was only in his 30s, the Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective of the artist’s work.

Stella has received many awards and honors, including First Prize at the International Biennial Exhibition of Paintings in Tokyo, Japan (1967); Ordre des Arts et des Lettres from the French Government (1989); and Gold Medal for Graphic Art Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in New York, NY (1998). The artist currently lives and works in New York, NY.

18

Snarkitecture

PTS 11.03

Artcracy Rank

1470 0

Snarkitecture is a partnership between an artist and an architect, and their work bridges the gap between functional objects, performance, and conceptual art. Alex Mustonen and Daniel Arsham studied architecture and art, respectively, at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Since then, they’ve played with conventions of design, and upended viewers’ expectations with pieces that appear broken or sinking, like their cast-marble Split stool or the two-toned Slip bench. Their clean, inventive design has attracted the attention of Merce Cunningham, Hedi Slimane, and Richard Chai, for whom the duo carved a glacial cavern-like structure for a temporary store. Among their prolific commissions is _Drift_, a temporary structure made of inflated tubes for the entrance of Design Miami/ in 2012.

19

Frida Kahlo

PTS 11.02

Artcracy Rank

812 +44

Frida Kahlo (Mexican, 1907–1954) is one of Mexico’s most celebrated and well-known artists, renowned for her surrealistic paintings and self-portraits. Born in Coyoacán, at the age of six, Kahlo contracted polio, leaving one leg shorter than the other, which she covered with long skirts. Kahlo attended the renowned National Preparatory School in Mexico City, where she first met the famous Mexican muralist

Kahlo reconnected with Rivera in 1928. The two soon began a romantic relationship, and were eventually married. During their earlier years together, the two moved many times for Rivera’s work, spending time in San Francisco, New York, and Detroit. During this time, Kahlo often occupied herself by painting, particularly because the chronic pain she experienced frequently left her immobilized.

In 1938, Kahlo befriended noted Surrealist artist

In 1944, Kahlo painted one of her most famous portraits, The Broken Column. In this work, she is naked from the waist up and split down the middle, with a surgical brace wrapped around her chest and torso. Her spine appears as a shattered column and everywhere on her body, the artist painted nails. This work exemplifies her unique and expressive use of color and symbolism, as well as her use of Surrealist techniques coupled with elements of traditional Mexican painting.

Her health worsened in the 1950s, though she continued to paint and show her works. She died in her home in Mexico City at the age of 47.

Her popularity grew after her death, with her famous Blue House converted into a museum in 1958. She also served as an icon during the feminist movement in the 1970s. In 2002, her life was the subject of the movie Frida, which starred Salma Hayek and Alfred Molina, and was nominated for six Academy Awards.

20

Jef Aerosol

PTS 11.01

Artcracy Rank

1963 +3

A pioneer of street art in France, Jef Aérosol began spray painting on the streets of Tours, later relocated to Lille in Northern France, and now works across the globe. Born with the name Jean-François Perroy, Aérosol mostly depicts figures, vacillating between cultural icons such as John Lennon and Gandhi and archetypes with political and social meanings. Aérosol’s figures have a stenciled quality, which is shared among many of his peers, but he distinguishes his work with the addition of red arrows. The arrows evoke commercial imagery, with their hard-edged, graphic nature, but they also have a mysterious quality, pointing to Aérosol’s figures while simultaneously being set apart from the image as a whole.

21

Olafur Eliasson

PTS 10.95

Artcracy Rank

23 0

Olafur Eliasson (Danish, b.1967) creates sensory experiences that highlight the interaction between the spectator, object, and environment; his interest in the five senses and how they guide us through experiences is evident and consistent throughout his body of work. In 2003, Eliasson replicated elements of nature in his The Weather Project, which was installed in the Turbine Hall of London’s Tate Modern, drawing upwards of two million visitors.

Eliasson was born in Copenhagen in 1967 to Icelandic parents. He attended the Royal Academy of Arts in Copenhagen from 1989 to 1995. After school, he opened Studio Olafur Eliasson in Berlin, a laboratory for artistic creation and spatial research. Adding materials such as fog, water, light, and reflective surfaces to open spaces, Eliasson’s projects and installations make for immersive and unexpected experiences that highlight the ephemeral qualities of our surroundings. In 1997, Your sun machine focused on the lapse of time as determined by the sun’s path across earth. Viewers entered into a room with a single hole in the roof in order to witness the small patch of sunlight make its progress throughout the day.

Eliasson makes clear the importance of viewers and their presence, often addressing them directly in the titles of his works. In 2009, Eliasson explored light through alternative means in his Your atmospheric colour atlas, which was on exhibition at the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art, Kanazawa, Japan. Filling a gallery with fog and color, the exhibition invited visitors to blend into the spectrum, mixing light to create their own interpretations.

The artist currently lives and works in Berlin, where he was a professor at the Berlin University of the Arts. His studio now employs more than 40 people as artists, architects, scientists, and technicians. However, his endeavors extend beyond the art world. He launched his Little Sun project in 2012, after working with an engineer to develop solar-powered lights for areas of the world with minimal access to electricity.

Eliasson has received many awards throughout his career, his most recent accolade being the 2014 Eugene McDermott Award in the Arts at MIT in Cambridge, MA. His work is represented in public and private collections worldwide, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, and the Tate in London.

22

KAWS

PTS 10.94

Artcracy Rank

93 0

KAWS (American, b.1974) is a notable limited-edition toy and clothing designer. He was born in Jersey City, NJ, as Brian Donnelly. Growing up in New Jersey, KAWS first became interested in graffiti in elementary school, where he spent a good deal of time copying graffiti images onto paper. His first influences were neighborhood children, who painted graffiti images on walls within his community. As he grew older, his influences came from traditional life painters, such as

KAWS’s career began as a graffiti artist in New York, NY, in the early 1990s. His images were seen on billboards, bus stops, and in phone booths. He obtained his BFA from the School of Visual Arts in New York. Immediately after graduation in 1996, KAWS began working as a freelance artist for Disney, creating animated backgrounds. Some of his most popular works include his contributions to 101 Dalmations, Daria, and Doug. Once KAWS began to gain popularity, his graffiti advertisements became highly sought after. He traveled extensively to work in Paris, London, Germany, and Japan. In 1998, he received the Pernod Liquid Art Award, which offers a grant to new artists.

In late 1990s, KAWS began to design and produce limited-edition toys. These gained international popularity, especially in Japan. He also began to collaborate on several different toys, including with Nigo (Japanese, b.1970) for A Bathing Ape. Some of KAWS’s other popular collaborative works include his redesign of Mickey Mouse,

23

Michael Jackson

PTS 10.89

Artcracy Rank

8863 -2865

Michael Joseph Jackson(August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor.

24

Tim Burton

PTS 10.83

Artcracy Rank

1918 +2

Timothy Walter"Tim"Burton(/ˈbɜrtən/; born August 25, 1958) is an American film director, producer, artist, writer, and animator. He is known for his dark, gothic, macabre, and quirky horror and fantasy films such as the horror comedy fantasyBeetlejuice(1988), the romantic dark fantasyEdward Scissorhands(1990), the musical fantasy-thrillerThe Nightmare Before Christmas(1993), the comedy-drama biopicEd Wood(1994), the fantasy adventureSleepy Hollow(1999), the animated fantasyCorpse Bride(2005), the musical horror filmSweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street(2007), the horror comedyDark Shadows(2012) and the animated horror comedyFrankenweenie(2012).

25

Alejandro Vigilante

PTS 10.82

Artcracy Rank

10501 -17

The founder of what he calls “the i-Art movement”, Alejandro Vigilante creates humorous and ironic mixed-media works and paintings that draw their subject matter from popular culture. In his “WiFi in the afterlife” series, Vigilante gives voice to iconic figures such as Grace Kelly, Frida Kahlo, and Marilyn Monroe, transferring images of them onto wood, alongside imagined Tweets and social media updates that the figures might have sent in today’s networked culture, and colorful patterns in acrylic paint. “What’s more pop than the internet?” he has asked. Vigilante cites [Roy Lichtenstein](/artist/roy-lichtenstein) and [Robert Rauschenberg](/artist/robert-rauschenberg) as major influences on his work.

TOP
5000 ARTISTS
OF THIS YEAR

1

Banksy

PTS 228.68

Artcracy Rank

2 0


Banksy (British, b. ca.1974/1975) is one of the most well-known, if mysterious, Graffiti artists working in England today. Banksy, the pseudonym adopted by the artist, heavily guards his privacy; the details of his life largely unknown to the public. He has garnered great fame for his graffiti works, which often combine spray paint and stenciling techniques with commercial, political, and contemporary imagery, infused with ironic social commentary and humor. Often critical of business and corporations, Banksy’s work has been found on the sides of corporate buildings, on billboards, as well as the Israeli West Bank wall.

The unveiling of many of Banksy’s new works often incorporates pranks or performance: he secretly added his own works in museums like the Tate Modern in London or the Paris Louvre; opened gallery shows to the public with specially-bred rats running around the gallery space; and once inserted an inflatable doll dressed as a Guantanamo Bay prisoner into the Disneyland theme park in California. In addition to his reactionary street art, Banksy has created works for several charities, and consistently opens exhibitions of his work to wide audiences and critical acclaim. He currently lives and works in Bristol, England.

2

Andy Warhol

PTS 228.06

Artcracy Rank

1 0


Andy Warhol (American, 1928–1987), born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh, PA, was an iconic and versatile Pop artist. After studying design at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Warhol moved to New York City in 1949 to pursue a career as a commercial artist. Though successful, Warhol wanted to be an independent painter, and in the early 1960s began to create paintings based on advertisement imagery. Shocking in its embrace of "low art" and its detachment from emotion, his early work quickly brought him fame, as he produced the now infamous series of Campbell’s Soup Cans, Disasters, Electric Chairs, and celebrity portraits (Marilyn Monroe, Jackie Kennedy, and Elvis Presley were among his subjects), with commercial techniques such as screen printing and stenciling. As his fame grew, Warhol built a studio called The Factory on 47th street in New York City, and collected a group of eccentrics he called the "Superstars", with whom he created a number of experimental films, such as Sleep, Chelsea Girls, and Empire, which were often banned by the police for their vulgarity.

In 1968, Valerie Solanas, a former member of Warhol’s entourage, attempted to kill the artist and others outside of The Factory. Narrowly surviving, Warhol withdrew from his bohemian circle and occupied himself in the 1970s creating celebrity portraits, which brought him considerable earnings, but weakened his critical approval. With

Warhol died in 1987 due to complications following an operation. As per his desire, the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was established after his death.

3

Salvador Dalí

PTS 217.78

Artcracy Rank

4 0

Salvador Dalí (Spanish, born May 11, 1904–died January 23, 1989) was a prominent Surrealist artist. Dalí spent his childhood in the Spanish villages of Figueras and Cadaques. He was influenced by Renaissance masters such as

In 1925, the artist held his first solo exhibition in Barcelona. Dalí would gain some international recognition in 1928 when the Carnegie International Exhibition showed three of his works, one of which was Basket of Bread. He met

World War II forced Dalí and his wife to flee Europe. The couple spent most of the 1940s in the United States. New York’s Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective exhibition of Dalí’s work in 1941. He wrote his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, the following year. Dalí deviated from Surrealism in the 1950s and began painting a more classical series of 19 paintings. These works incorporated topics such as history, religion, and science. Washington, D.C.’s National Gallery holds The Sacrament of the Last Supper, while the Salvador Dalí Museum is home to The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Dalí not only painted, but also collaborated with other artists in sculpture, photography, and film. Walt Disney collaborated with him on the film Destino, and Alfred Hitchcock commissioned the artist to design a dream sequence for his film Spellbound. Dalí spent the last years of his life in Torre Galatea, Spain. The artist died on January 23, 1989.

4

Ai Weiwei

PTS 217.77

Artcracy Rank

6 0

Ai Weiwei (Chinese, b.1957) is a Conceptual artist, sculptor, and curator, originally from Beijing, China. In 1978, he enrolled in the Beijing Film Academy. He later became a member of the artist group Stars, which refused to create Chinese Art that followed government guidelines. The first unofficial exhibition of this group, which took place by a fence of the Beijing National Gallery, attracted international attention.

From 1981 to 1993, Ai lived in the United States, primarily in New York. At that time, he focused on Performance and Conceptual Art, and graduated from the Parsons School of Design. Influenced by the artworks of

In the spring of 2011, he was arrested on suspicion of tax evasion. This incident caused a wave of international protest, and many important individuals called for his release. On June 22, 2011, the artist was granted bail with strict conditions. That same year, Ai was listed as one of the top 100 of most influential people in the world by Time Magazine. He participated in the 48th Venice Biennale in 1999, and in documenta XII in 2007. Ai lives and works in the Art District of Dashanz in Beijing.

5

Pablo Picasso

PTS 213.63

Artcracy Rank

11 0


Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973), one of the most prominent, innovative artists of the 20th century, is celebrated for his lengthy and prolific career working in several modernist idioms, as well as for co-founding Cubism. Picasso was born in Málaga, Spain, and began drawing and painting early on under the influence of his father, an academic painter. He later studied art in Barcelona and often frequented the café Els Quatre Gats, where he first began exhibiting his own paintings. Picasso first visited Paris in 1900 for the city’s world fair, before moving there in 1904.

Early on, Picasso painted many scenes of laborers and the poor during his Blue Period, later focusing on acrobats and circus performers during his Rose Period; in each period, his compositions were dominated by blue or rose hues. In 1907, inspired by African aesthetics, Picasso made his first significant foray into Cubism and into a modernist aesthetic with his monumental painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which featured a scene of five aggressive-looking prostitutes painted with distorted, angular forms and faces in bold outlines, influenced by African masks.

Alongside fellow artist

In the mid-1940s, Picasso fully settled in Paris, later moving to Mougins, France, where he created an astounding number of paintings, prints, sculptures, ceramics, and works on paper during the next few decades. Held in the highest regard during his lifetime, retrospectives of his work have been held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Musée Picasso in Paris, the Emirates Palace in Abu Dhabi, the National Gallery in London, and the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid, among many other institutions. In 1973, Picasso died in Mougins, at 92 years old, and is renowned today as one of the pioneering and most influential forces of 20th-century modernism.

6

Jeff Koons

PTS 209.24

Artcracy Rank

13 0


Neo-Pop artist Jeff Koons (American, b.1955) inspires conflicted reactions to his over-sized sculptures of banal and sometimes shocking objects; some consider his work to be historically significant, while others view him as an attention-seeker who panders to the high-end art world. Educated at the Art Institute of Chicago and the University of Maryland, he was initially supported by his career on Wall Street. By the early 1980s, Koons was able to establish a studio staffed by assistants.

He quickly cultivated a media persona by hiring image consultants and placing strategic advertisements in high-class art publications; his scandalous marriage to and subsequent divorce from the Hungarian-Italian porn star Ciccolina also brought much public attention. Most famous for enlarged objects such as Puppy and his huge sculptures of inflated balloons, Koons also works in series of paintings, prints, and collage, stating that he is attempting to make a body of work that anybody could enjoy.

7

Damien Hirst

PTS 206.29

Artcracy Rank

8 0


Damien Hirst (British, b.1965) is one of the leaders of the

Hirst’s work has generated enormous controversy, in part, for its morbidity and fascination with medicine, which is evident in several of his series: the encased dead animals in various states of preservation, the incorporation of butterfly wings into stained glass-like images, cabinets filled with pharmaceuticals, and diamond-encrusted skulls. A team of assistants help Hirst carry out his projects; his spot paintings and spin paintings are almost entirely the work of others. In the 1990s, Hirst was also a public figure for drunken and drugged spectacles, but he has since stopped drinking and smoking. In 2012, his works were exhibited at the Tate Modern in London, and his spot paintings were part of a world exhibition The Complete Sport Paintings 1986–2011 held by the Gagosian Gallery in 11 of its galleries simultaneously, from January 12 to February 18, 2012.

8

René Magritte

PTS 204.97

Artcracy Rank

12 0

René Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967) was a painter, photographer, and sculptor who was a major player in the Surrealist movement in Belgium during the 1920s. His primary role was as a painter, and he frequently delved into mystical concepts and the disconnection between His first Surreal painting was created during this period, and it was called Magritte was famous for altering the forms of

9

Joan Miró

PTS 203.58

Artcracy Rank

5 0

Catalan artist Joan Miró (Spanish, 1893–1983) spent a few years in technical school as a teenager before he began his artistic career. He trained at Francesc Galí’s Escola d’Art in Barcelona from 1912 to 1915, after which he had his first solo show in Barcelona at the gallery of José Dalmau in 1918. Starting in 1920, Miró divided his time between Montroig, Spain, and Paris, where he commingled with poets such as

After a trip to the Netherlands in 1928, Miró created the series Dutch Interiors, in which amorphous forms entered into his work. On October 12, 1929, he married Pilar Juncosa in Palma de Mallorca, and then moved to Paris. During this period, he rebelled against painting, and produced wood reliefs, assemblages, and collages. Although he was living in France, the influence of the Spanish Civil War can be observed in the intense color and strong imagery of Still-life with an Old Shoe (1937). Experimentation continued in Miró’s work until his death in 1983. His wide body of work included ceramics, various prints, drawing, and sculpture. Major projects include the 1958 ceramic murals The Sun and The Moon for the UNESCO building in Paris. He collaborated with

Read more about Joan Miró

10

KAWS

PTS 203.31

Artcracy Rank

93 0

KAWS (American, b.1974) is a notable limited-edition toy and clothing designer. He was born in Jersey City, NJ, as Brian Donnelly. Growing up in New Jersey, KAWS first became interested in graffiti in elementary school, where he spent a good deal of time copying graffiti images onto paper. His first influences were neighborhood children, who painted graffiti images on walls within his community. As he grew older, his influences came from traditional life painters, such as

KAWS’s career began as a graffiti artist in New York, NY, in the early 1990s. His images were seen on billboards, bus stops, and in phone booths. He obtained his BFA from the School of Visual Arts in New York. Immediately after graduation in 1996, KAWS began working as a freelance artist for Disney, creating animated backgrounds. Some of his most popular works include his contributions to 101 Dalmations, Daria, and Doug. Once KAWS began to gain popularity, his graffiti advertisements became highly sought after. He traveled extensively to work in Paris, London, Germany, and Japan. In 1998, he received the Pernod Liquid Art Award, which offers a grant to new artists.

In late 1990s, KAWS began to design and produce limited-edition toys. These gained international popularity, especially in Japan. He also began to collaborate on several different toys, including with Nigo (Japanese, b.1970) for A Bathing Ape. Some of KAWS’s other popular collaborative works include his redesign of Mickey Mouse,

11

Jean-Michel Basquiat

PTS 203.14

Artcracy Rank

3 0


Jean-Michel Basquiat (American, 1960–1988), one of the first African American artists to reach international stature and wealth in the art world, had a short but prolific career, rising to fame early for his fusion of multicultural symbols, biting social commentary, distinctive graphic style, and often temperamental personality. Born in Brooklyn, NY, Basquiat drew and visited museums regularly from an early age, and many of his childhood interests (ranging from cartoons and Alfred Hitchcock films to anatomy and French and Spanish books) would prove influential in his later work. Basquiat dropped out of school at the age of 17, and began creating art, gaining notoriety for his invented character SAMO (“Same Old Shit”), who made a living peddling “fake” religion.

Basquiat depicted SAMO’s signature in graffiti art with cryptic messages in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and began painting on found materials, buildings, t-shirts, and commercial items. He delved into the urban 1980s avant-garde culture of New York City, creating wildly expressive paintings, which earned him considerable acclaim by 1982, following his first solo exhibition. In 1983 he befriended his idol,

Ever conscious of his identity as an African-American in the art world, Basquiat’s work was rife with imagery commenting on race relations in America, and drawing from the culture of the African Diaspora. His prevalent drug use became a greater concern to his friends and colleagues in the mid-1980s, and the artist’s fiery temper and capriciousness increased, particularly when working with dealers or developing his oeuvre. Warhol’s death in 1987 deeply affected Basquiat, and he painted several final works in a frenzy, full of apocalyptic imagery but with a confident, mature style. He died of a drug overdose in 1988, ending a brief but brilliant and unique career.

12

Frank Stella

PTS 202.83

Artcracy Rank

38 0

Frank Stella (American, b.1936) is a painter and printmaker who was born in Malden, MA. He attended high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, MA, and went on to study history at Princeton University. After he graduated in 1958, the artist moved to New York, NY.

In 1958, Stella was inspired by

Stella’s works have been featured in various exhibitions in the United States and worldwide, including those held at Haunch of Venison in London, England; the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, NY; Gagosian Gallery in New York, NY; The Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C.; and Kunstmuseum in Basel, Switzerland. In 1970, when Stella was only in his 30s, the Museum of Modern Art held a retrospective of the artist’s work.

Stella has received many awards and honors, including First Prize at the International Biennial Exhibition of Paintings in Tokyo, Japan (1967); Ordre des Arts et des Lettres from the French Government (1989); and Gold Medal for Graphic Art Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in New York, NY (1998). The artist currently lives and works in New York, NY.

13

Francis Bacon

PTS 202.69

Artcracy Rank

7 0

Francis Bacon (Irish, 1909–1992) was one of the most unique, engaging Figurative painters to emerge after World War II. Largely self-taught, Bacon was born in Dublin and moved to London when he was 16, and then to Paris and Berlin in the following few years. During that time, he painted in watercolors and, upon returning to London, began working as a furniture and interior designer. In the 1940s, he pursued painting more seriously, and began creating works featuring macabre, homoerotic, and violently expressive imagery.

His portraits and figurative works often pictured screaming, agonized, or caged figures, which solidified his reputation as an overwhelmingly compelling, if somber, observer of human nature. In the 1960s, Bacon painted many portraits featuring close-up views of his subject’s heads; he often worked in series, creating sustained bodies of subject matter, such as in his Popes or three-part portrait series. After the death of his lover in 1972, his work became even more personalized, with a renewed focus on mortality. While he received both positive and negative acclaim during his lifetime, his distinctive style is unmatched. Since his death in 1992, his work has continued to grow in popularity, and has been featured in exhibitions at the Tate Gallery in London, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D.C., the Stedelijik Museum in Amsterdam, and The Museum of Modern Art in New York, among many other institutions.

14

Takashi Murakami

PTS 201.55

Artcracy Rank

15 0

Takashi Murakami (American/Japanese, b.1962) is a painter and sculptor famous for his integration of Fine Art, commercialism, Japanese aesthetics, and cultural criticism into his work. Murakami received his BFA, MFA, and PhD from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, where he studied Nihonga (traditional Japanese painting). He first gained recognition as a sculptor during the early 1990s, exploring otaku (the Japanese term for an obsession with anime and cartoons) and the contradictions between contemporary Japanese society and American culture in his work.

In 1996, he created the Hiropon Factory in Japan, which later developed into Kaikai Kiki Co., Ltd., a large art-making and artist management corporation. Murakami is also a curator and a critical observer of Japanese art. In 2000, he founded the "superflat" movement, a post-modern style drawing inspiration from Japanese manga (comics created in Japan), graphic design, and traditional Japanese prints and screen paintings. Throughout his career, Murakami has increasingly blurred the boundaries between fine art and popular culture by branding his artwork and turning it into merchandise, particularly with the celebrated character

15

Olafur Eliasson

PTS 200.57

Artcracy Rank

23 0

Olafur Eliasson (Danish, b.1967) creates sensory experiences that highlight the interaction between the spectator, object, and environment; his interest in the five senses and how they guide us through experiences is evident and consistent throughout his body of work. In 2003, Eliasson replicated elements of nature in his The Weather Project, which was installed in the Turbine Hall of London’s Tate Modern, drawing upwards of two million visitors.

Eliasson was born in Copenhagen in 1967 to Icelandic parents. He attended the Royal Academy of Arts in Copenhagen from 1989 to 1995. After school, he opened Studio Olafur Eliasson in Berlin, a laboratory for artistic creation and spatial research. Adding materials such as fog, water, light, and reflective surfaces to open spaces, Eliasson’s projects and installations make for immersive and unexpected experiences that highlight the ephemeral qualities of our surroundings. In 1997, Your sun machine focused on the lapse of time as determined by the sun’s path across earth. Viewers entered into a room with a single hole in the roof in order to witness the small patch of sunlight make its progress throughout the day.

Eliasson makes clear the importance of viewers and their presence, often addressing them directly in the titles of his works. In 2009, Eliasson explored light through alternative means in his Your atmospheric colour atlas, which was on exhibition at the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art, Kanazawa, Japan. Filling a gallery with fog and color, the exhibition invited visitors to blend into the spectrum, mixing light to create their own interpretations.

The artist currently lives and works in Berlin, where he was a professor at the Berlin University of the Arts. His studio now employs more than 40 people as artists, architects, scientists, and technicians. However, his endeavors extend beyond the art world. He launched his Little Sun project in 2012, after working with an engineer to develop solar-powered lights for areas of the world with minimal access to electricity.

Eliasson has received many awards throughout his career, his most recent accolade being the 2014 Eugene McDermott Award in the Arts at MIT in Cambridge, MA. His work is represented in public and private collections worldwide, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, and the Tate in London.

16

Shepard Fairey

PTS 199.07

Artcracy Rank

44 0

Shepard Fairey (American, b.1970) is a renowned graphic artist known for his work on the images of Andre the Giant and the word obey. Fairey was born in Charleston, SC, and he became interested in art as a young man, when he started to use his drawings on T-shirts and skateboards. Fairey's father is a doctor, and his mother is a realtor. The artist attended Idyllwild Arts Academy in Palm Springs, CA, and graduated in 1988. He earned his BFA from the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, RI, in 1992.

While in school, Fairey held a part-time job in a skateboarding shop; the job fit well with the budding artist's interest in street culture and graffiti. During this time, the artist was also interested in punk music, and when a friend asked him to explain and demonstrate the creation of a stencil, he chose to use the banal image of Andre the Giant on a newspaper ad for the demonstration. Soon after that, Fairey introduced his pieces to the streets via Graffiti Art. Two of Fairey's well-known pieces are Obey (1992) and Hope (2008). Hope is an iconic portrait of the American president Barack Obama that Fairey produced during the 2008 American presidential campaign.

Fairey has been involved in both solo and group exhibitions in diverse places. He has held solo exhibitions in Capsule, Birmingham, England (2000); Kantor Gallery Window, New York, NY (2003); and Merry Karnosky Gallery, Los Angeles, CA (2007). Examples of his group exhibitions include those held at CPOP Gallery, Detroit, MI, (2001); Ducky Waddles Emporium, Encinitas, CA (2004); and OXOP Gallery, Minneapolis, MN (2006). Fairey received the Brit Insurance Design of the Year Award in 2009 for his Hope poster. The artist has been involved in different controversies, mainly related to the allegations that he uses other artists' work without permission. Fairey was commissioned by Time Magazine in 2011 to design a cover for the magazine. Fairey is represented by Irvine Contemporary gallery in Washington, DC. The artist lives and works in Los Angeles, CA.

17

Anish Kapoor

PTS 197.67

Artcracy Rank

21 0

Anish Kapoor (British/Indian, b.1954) is regarded as one of the most prominent British-Indian sculptors of his generation. He first gained critical recognition for his work in the 1980s; Kapoor is well known for his intense, almost spiritual, outdoor and indoor site-specific works in which he marries a Modernist sense of pure materiality with a fascination for the manipulation of form and the perception of space. Kapoor, who was born in Bombay and moved to London in the 1970s to study art, first worked on abstract and organic sculptures using fundamental natural materials such as granite, limestone, marble, pigment, and plaster. His sculptures extend formal minimalistic precepts through catching the viewer’s attention with rich colors, sensuously refined surfaces, and optical effects of depth and dimension.

Since the mid-1990s, Kapoor has explored the notion of the void by creating works that seem to recede into the distance, disappear into walls or floors, or otherwise destabilize assumptions about the physical world. Through transforming properties of objects and materials, Kapoor’s recent work increasingly blurs the boundaries between architecture, design, and art. He received great critical attention in the United States for Cloud Gate, a permanent 110-ton sculpture of polished stainless steel created for Chicago’s Millennium Park in 2006, and for Sky Mirror, a 35-foot-diameter concave mirror shown in the same year at Rockefeller Center in New York.

Kapoor has reached international status, with solo exhibitions at venues around the world, such as the Tate and Hayward Gallery in London, Kunsthalle Basel, the Haus der Kunst in Munich, and the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston. In 2015, a major exhibition of his work was presented in the gardens of the Palace of Versailles. He represented Britain at the Venice Biennale in 1990, and received the Turner Prize in the following year. Kapoor’s work can be found in collections worldwide, notably in The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Modern in London, the Prada Art Foundation in Milan, and the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.

He is represented by various galleries including

18

Alexander Calder

PTS 197.18

Artcracy Rank

32 0


Alexander Calder (American, born July 22, 1898–died November 11, 1976) is one of the most celebrated sculptors of the 20th century. Born in Pennsylvania, Calder was interested in creating movable objects from a young age, and graduated from the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, in 1919, with an engineering degree. He later decided to pursue a career as an artist, and moved to New York City to study painting at the Art Students League. While in New York City, he worked for the National Police Gazette, and was sent on assignment to sketch circuses, a festive motif that would become a famous and enduring subject in his work. Upon moving to Paris in 1926, Calder began creating large-scale mechanical installations of intricate circus scenes, featuring wire sculptures with moving parts that he would operate over a two-hour performance session. Building off of his Cirque Calder, he began sculpting portraits and figures out of wire, and received critical attention, exhibiting these works in subsequent gallery shows in New York, Paris, and Berlin.

He befriended several important Abstract artists in Paris at this time, including

19

Gerhard Richter

PTS 196.65

Artcracy Rank

31 0


Gerhard Richter (German, b.1932) is a preeminent postwar painter. Born in Dresden, his youth was marked by the Nazi and Communist regimes in Germany, and his uneasy relationship to German history would persist as a central theme in his work. In the early 1950s, he attended the Kunstakademie in Dresden, where he was trained in Socialist Realist painting, before moving to West Germany and studying avant-garde art at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. Richter established several important relationships there, including friendships with fellow students

20

Man Ray

PTS 195.98

Artcracy Rank

48 0

Man Ray (American, 1890–1976), a prominent member of the French Surrealist circle, is celebrated for pioneering Modernist painting, film, and photography. Born Emmanuel Radnitzky in Philadelphia, Man Ray moved to Brooklyn, New York, with his family as a child, frequently visiting the city’s art museums in his youth. After graduating high school in 1908, he befriended artists such as Alfred Stieglitz (American, 1864–1946), Marcel Duchamp (French, 1887–1968), and Robert Henri (American, 1865–1929), and worked alongside them to establish New York Dada during World War I. Man Ray took up photography in 1915, and co-founded the Societé Anonyme in 1921 with Duchamp and Katherine Dreier (American, 1877–1952); it was seen as the first important collection of Modern Art in the United States. That same year, Man Ray moved to Paris, where he would reside as a member of the French Surrealist group until the beginning of World War II.

He began working frequently with collage, assemblage, found objects, and experimental photography, creating “camera-less” photographic works he called Rayographs by placing objects on light-sensitive paper. Using solarization and other photographic techniques involving the manipulation of light and the camera’s mechanical processes, Man Ray further pushed the boundaries of avant-garde photography. He also created Surrealist films, and worked as a skilled portrait photographer; his subjects included Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973), Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and many other leading figures of the early 20th century. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Man Ray’s work was well received in France, and he was regarded as a major figure in the international art world. He returned to the United States in 1940 to escape war in Europe, and settled in Los Angeles; always uncomfortable with his American identity, he returned to France in 1951. He spent the next few decades creating works, ranging from painting and drawing to assemblage and photography, exhibiting around the world before his death in Paris, in 1976. Today, he is revered as one of the most important American Modernist artists, and as a groundbreaking practitioner of photography. His work is in the collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC, the Getty Museum in Los Angeles, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, and the Tate Gallery in London, among others.

21

Mark Rothko

PTS 195.89

Artcracy Rank

10 0

Mark Rothko (American, 1903–1970) was one of the leading members of the New York School of Abstract painters, and was best known for his meditative pieces featuring large, luminous blocks of color. Rothko was born Marcus Rothkowitz in Latvia, and moved with his family to the United States when he was 10 years old. In 1921, Rothko attended Yale University, where he planned to pursue a career as a lawyer or an engineer, but he abandoned his studies before graduating. Rothko then moved to New York and took classes at the Art Students League. Rothko’s early paintings, featuring urban scenes, landscapes, and figurative works with rough applications of paint, emphasized the expressive potential of art.

In the mid-1930s, he joined the Ten, a New York circle made up of many Modernist painters that would shape the next few decades of abstract painting in America:

22

James Turrell

PTS 195.40

Artcracy Rank

36 0

James Turrell (American, b.1943) was born on May 6, 1943, in Los Angeles, CA, to Quaker parents. When he was 16 years old, Turrell earned a pilot’s licence, and he went on to fly supplies to mine sites in remote areas. In 1961, the artist graduated from Pasadena High School. He earned a BA in Psychology from Pomona College in 1965, and went on to obtain an MA in Art from Claremont Graduate School.

Turrell is known to be primarily concerned with space and light in his work. In 1966, the artist began to experiment with light at the Mendota Hotel. During this time period, a Light and Space group of Los Angeles artists was beginning to rise to fame. This group included artists such as

Turrell has received various prestigious honors throughout his career. In 1974, the artist was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship, and in 1991, he was honored with the Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres in France. Turrell’s work has been shown in numerous solo and group exhibitions around the world. He has exhibited at Gagosian Gallery, in London, UK, MoMA PS1, in New York, NY, Museum für Moderne Kunst, in Frankfurt, Germany, and more. The artist currently lives and works in Flagstaff, AZ.

23

Richard Prince

PTS 194.89

Artcracy Rank

19 0

Richard Prince (American, b.1949) is a painter and photographer, best known as a pioneer of Appropriation Art. Born in the Panama Canal Zone, Prince grew up in Massachusetts and moved to New York in 1977, where he prepared magazine clippings for Time-Life, spurring his interest in advertising and consumer imagery. He began creating works based on various pop culture images taken from magazines and newspapers, often re-photographing and manipulating the images in his own works. Considered by many the father of Appropriation Art, the majority of his works includes scandalous subject matter and has provoked controversy around issues of copyright in the art world. His famous Cowboys series of 1980s photographs, for example, was taken from Marlboro ad campaigns. In the mid-1980s, Prince shifted his interest from images to text, evident in his Jokes series, displaying appropriated jokes in ironic works. From his home in Upstate New York, Prince created his late Nurse Paintings series, inspired by pulp romance novels, as well as his own photographs of everyday rural and suburban life. He acquired an abandoned farmhouse near his home in 2001, which he turned into an installation site he called Second House, installing the interior with his sculptures, paintings, and his own books; the structure has been purchased by the Guggenheim Museum in New York, but was struck by lightning and destroyed in 2007. In the fall of that year, Prince’s work was the subject of a major retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum. Prince currently lives and works in Upstate New York.

24

Henry Moore

PTS 193.56

Artcracy Rank

156 0

Henry Moore (British, 1898–1986) is often considered the foremost British sculptor of the 20th century. In 1919, he studied at the Leeds School of Art, and earned a scholarship to the Royal College in London in 1921. From 1925 until 1931, Moore taught at the Royal College, and in 1928, received his first commission. The project, which was a relief work for the London Underground Headquarters, illustrated Moore''''s interest in primitive art. Moore''''s style was inspired by

25

Marc Chagall

PTS 193.38

Artcracy Rank

18 0


The prolific artistic career of Marc Chagall (French/Russian, born July 7, 1887–died March 28, 1985) spanned over seven decades. Influenced by Cubism and Fauvism, Chagall’s oeuvre is consistent in his use of figuration and color. Born in Russia in 1887, Chagall moved to France in 1910, and became an integral member of the École de Paris. He participated in the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne in 1912. His first solo show was held in 1914 at Der Sturm gallery in Berlin. During a visit to Russia in 1914, Chagall met and later married Bella Rosenfeld, who came to be the subject of many of his paintings, such as Bella with White Collar (1917). Chagall and Rosenfeld were forestalled from returning to Paris because of the outbreak of war. They settled in Vitebsk—Chagall’s hometown—where he was appointed Commissar for Art in 1918, and founded the Vitebsk Popular Art School, where he remained as director until his resignation in 1920.

In 1923, Chagall moved back to Paris, and notably formed a friendship with dealer Ambroise Vollard, who commissioned Chagall to draw and paint multiple religious scenes from the Old Testament, and similar sources. In addition to Chagall’s Jewish-themed works, such as Green Violinist (1923–1924) and Dancing Mirjam (1931), he often drew inspiration from the Christian Bible. During World War II, Chagall fled to the United States, where he had a retrospective at The Museum of Modern Art in New York, in 1946. He returned to France in 1948, and permanently settled there, yet he would continue to travel for commissions and pleasure throughout the rest of his life. Along with painting, printmaking, and many other media, Chagall is known for his stained-glass windows, like those at the synagogue of the Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem (installed in 1962), and the memorial window Peace (installed in 1964) for the United Nations. A major retrospective of his work was held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1985; Chagall died the same year at the age of 97 in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France.

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